Programming and writing about it.

echo $RANDOM

Announcing early access for “Doing Math with Python”

Early Access promotion:

No Starch Press is running a promotion tomorrow (29/01/2015 – PST)  that will offer 40% off all Early Access titles on, including Doing Math with Python. The discount code is BRIGHTANDEARLY. Currently two chapters are available and more should be up in the coming days!

I am excited to write that my new book “Doing Math with Python” to be published by No Starch Press is now available via their “Early Access” program – which means if you now buy the book, you will get the chapters as and when they are available and also, the chapters may need more polishing.


The book uses Python 3 exclusively and the Appendix A covers setup and installation instructions for Python 3 and the libraries used in the book. However, that is not yet available. Hence, at this stage, the easiest way would be to use a distribution such as Anaconda on Windows, Linux or Mac OSX (untested, I don’t have access to the OS).

Book Review: Linux System Programming

I received a review copy of the book as part of the blogger review program.

I review for the O'Reilly Blogger Review Program

Title:  “Linux System Programming (2nd Edition) ” by Robert Love; O’Reilly Media.


This book consists of 11 chapters. The first chapter introduces you nicely to the the core topics and lays the foundation for the rest of the book. Files (including some hints on the role of the virtual file system and how they are represented in the Kernel), Input/Output (User buffered I/O, I/O scheduling, Scatter-Gather I/O), Processes (including their creation mechanisms and management), Threads (and how Linux implements them along with a treatment of the POSIX threads library), Memory (Process address space, dynamic memory allocation strategies, and how they work, memory locking) form the core of the book. The second last chapter discusses signal handling. The last chapter of the book is on time (the different types of time, how you can get/set time, measure time elapsed and timers) and is sort of a “standalone” topic for the book. The first appendix discusses the GCC extensions to the C language and can be handy when you read the Kernel source code.


In this book, the author discusses some of the most important topics that one would want to learn about when venturing into the area of “system programming” on Linux. He introduces the topics in a friendly manner adding some fun anecdotes from time to time (what does the “c” in calloc() stand for?).At various places, the reader is given a peek under the hood (for example, pause() is one of the simplest system calls implemented) which can only make the curious reader happy and itchy to download the kernel source code and start grepping. The book includes code examples throughout and hence if you are learning a topic for the first time, these are very useful starting points.


System programming on Linux is an area encompassing number of related topics most of which can fill up whole books on their own. I also could not help comparing this book with “The Linux Programming Interface” by Michael Kerrisk (a book which I own already). Should you buy this book if you already own the latter? Yes, you should. While not being “encyclopedic” and not covering topics such as socket programming at all, Robert Love’s “Linux System Programming” has the right level of treatment and detail for the reader interested in system programming.

Product page:

Fedora 20 Scientific Released

Fedora 20 is now released, which also means the newest release of Fedora Scientific along with other spins are also available.


You can download the spin images from here.

What’s new in Fedora Scientific

The notable additions in this release are:

  • Sage, along with Sage notebook.
  • SymPy, the Python library for Symbolic mathematics
  • The Python 3 versions for scipy, numpy, matplotlib libraries and IPython (including IPython notebook)
  • Commons math, a Java library for numerical computing

The Fedora 20 release notes are here.

Fedora Scientific Documentation

I started work on some documentation for Fedora Scientific about a month or so back. It is far from what I want it to be, but you can see the current version here. The first goal that I have in mind is to document all the major scientific tools and libraries that are shipped with Fedora Scientific. By document, I imply links to the official project resources and guides. The second goal is to actually add original content and make it a guide book for Fedora Scientific which may be used as an entry point for Open Source Scientific Computing. Once the guide has taken some shape, an RPM package can be created and distributed with Fedora Scientific so that the entire documentation is available for offline perusal.


The Fedora Scientific documentation is an excellent starting point if you are looking to make a contribution to Fedora Scientific. You can view the project here.

If you have some toy/throwaway scripts that makes use of one of the libraries/tools, you may want to contribute it to the
“tests” here. They will help sanity check these libraries and tools during the development of upcoming Fedora Scientific releases.

Discussions and support

Please join the Fedora scitech mailing list.

Suggetions and ideas? Please leave a comment.

C-x C-p for import pdb; pdb.set_trace()

I worked through most of the Learn Emacs Lisp in 15 minute tutorial and learned enough to write something useful:

;; Inset import pdb; pdb.set_trace() on C-x, C-p
(defun pdb-set-trace ()
  (insert "import pdb; pdb.set_trace()\n"))
(global-set-key [(control ?x) (control ?p)] 'pdb-set-trace)

Once you place this function in your Emacs init file, when you press the keys C-x and C-p, import pdb; pdb.set_trace() will magically appear in your Python program (well, anywhere for that matter, since there is no check in place). This is something which I know will be very useful to me. If you don’t like the key combination, you can change it in the last line of the above function.

If you don’t know Emacs lisp, you should try to work through the tutorial. Although, I must say I did make various attempts long time back to learn Common Lisp and Clojure, so it was not so unfamiliar to me.

poweroff, halt, reboot and systemctl

On Fedora (and perhaps other Linux distros using systemd) you will see that the poweroff, reboot and halt commands are all symlinks to systemctl:

> ls -l /sbin/poweroff /sbin/halt /sbin/reboot 
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 16 Oct  1 11:04 /sbin/halt -> ../bin/systemctl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 16 Oct  1 11:04 /sbin/poweroff -> ../bin/systemctl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 16 Oct  1 11:04 /sbin/reboot -> ../bin/systemctl

So, how does it all work? The answer lies in this code block from systemctl.c:

5556        if (program_invocation_short_name) {                                                                                                                                              
5558                if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "halt")) {                                                                                                                      
5559                        arg_action = ACTION_HALT;                                                                                                                                         
5560                        return halt_parse_argv(argc, argv);                                                                                                                               
5561                } else if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "poweroff")) {                                                                                                           
5562                        arg_action = ACTION_POWEROFF;                                                                                                                                     
5563                        return halt_parse_argv(argc, argv);                                                                                                                               
5564                } else if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "reboot")) {                                                                                                             
5565                        if (kexec_loaded())                                    

program_invocation_short_name is a variable (GNU extension) which contains the name used to invoke a program. The short indicates that if you call your program as /bin/myprogram, it is set to ‘myprogram’. There is also a program_invocation_name variable consisting of the entire path. Here is a demo:


# include <stdio.h>

extern char *program_invocation_short_name;
extern char *program_invocation_name;

int main(int argc, char **argv)
  printf("%s \n", program_invocation_short_name);
  printf("%s \n", program_invocation_name);
  return 0;

Assume that the executable for the above program is created as myprogram, execute the program from a directory which is one level up from where it resides. For example, in my case, myprogram is in $HOME/work and I am executing it from $HOME:

> ./work/myprogram 

You can see the difference between the values of the two variables. Note that any command line arguments passed are not included in any of the variables.

Back to systemctl

Okay, so now we know that when we execute the poweroff command (for example), program_invocation_short_name is set to poweroff and this check matches:

if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "poweroff")) 

and then the actual action of powering down the system takes place. Also note that how the halt_parse_argv function is called with the parameters argc and argv so that when you invoke the poweroff command with a switch such as --help, it is passed appropriately to halt_parse_argv:

5194        static const struct option options[] = {                                                                                                                                          
5195                { "help",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_HELP    },                                                                                                                    
5218                case ARG_HELP:                                                                                                                                                            
5219                        return halt_help(); 

Fooling around

Considering that systemctl uses strstr to match the command it was invoked as, it allows for some fooling around. Create a symlink mypoweroff to /bin/systemctl and then execute it as follows:

> ln -s /bin/systemctl mypoweroff
> ./mypoweroff --help
mypoweroff [OPTIONS...]

Power off the system.

     --help      Show this help
     --halt      Halt the machine
  -p --poweroff  Switch off the machine
     --reboot    Reboot the machine
  -f --force     Force immediate halt/power-off/reboot
  -w --wtmp-only Don't halt/power-off/reboot, just write wtmp record
  -d --no-wtmp   Don't write wtmp record
     --no-wall   Don't send wall message before halt/power-off/reboot

This symlink is for all purpose going to act like the poweroff command since systemctl basically checks whether ‘poweroff’ is a substring of the invoked command.

To learn more, see systemctl.c


Few months back, I had demoed invoking a similar behaviour in programs where a program behaves differently based on how you invoke it using argv[0] here. I didn’t know of the GNU extensions back then.

Writing git hooks using Python

Since git hooks can be any executable script with an appropriate #! line, Python is more than suitable for writing your git hooks. Simply stated, git hooks are scripts which are called at different points of time in the life cycle of working with your git repository.

Let’s start by creating a new git repository:

~/work> git init git-hooks-exp
Initialized empty Git repository in /home/gene/work/git-hooks-exp/.git/
~/work> cd git-hooks-exp/
~/work/git-hooks-exp (master)> tree -al .git/
├── branches
├── config
├── description
├── HEAD
├── hooks
│   ├── applypatch-msg.sample
│   ├── commit-msg.sample
│   ├── post-update.sample
│   ├── pre-applypatch.sample
│   ├── pre-commit.sample
│   ├── prepare-commit-msg.sample
│   ├── pre-rebase.sample
│   └── update.sample
├── info
│   └── exclude
├── objects
│   ├── info
│   └── pack
└── refs
    ├── heads
    └── tags

9 directories, 12 files

Inside the .git are a number of directories and files, one of them being hooks/ which is where the hooks live. By default, you will have a number of hooks with the file names ending in .sample. They may be useful as starting points for your own scripts. However, since they all have an extension .sample, none of the hooks are actually activated. For a hook to be activated, it must have the right file name and it should be executable. Let’s see how we can write a hook using Python.

We will write a post-commit hook. This hook is called immediately after you have made a commit. We are going to do something fairly useless, but quite interesting in this hook. We will take the commit SHA1 of this commit, and print how it may look like in a more human form. I do the latter using the humanhash module. You will need to have it installed.

Here is how the hook looks like:


import subprocess
import humanhash

# get the last commit SHA and print it after humanizing it
print humanhash.humanize(

I use the subprocess.check_output() function to execute the command git rev-parse HEAD so that I can get the commit SHA1 and then call the humanhash.humanize() function with it.

Save the hook as a file, post-commit in your hooks/ directory and make it executable using chmod +x .git/hooks/post-commit. Let’s see the hook in action:

~/work/git-hooks-exp (master)> touch file
~/work/git-hooks-exp (master)> git add file
~/work/git-hooks-exp (master)> git commit -m "Added a file"
[master (root-commit) 2d7880b] Added a file
 1 file changed, 0 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 file

The commit SHA1 for the commit turned out to be 2d7880be746a1c1e75844fc1aa161e2b8d955427. Let’s check it with the humanize function and check if we get the same message as above:

>>> humanhash.humanize('2d7880be746a1c1e75844fc1aa161e2b8d955427')

And you can see the same message above as well.

Accessing hook parameters

For some of the hooks, you will see that they are called with some parameters. In Python you can access them using the sys.argv attribute from the sys module, with the first member being the name of the hook of course and the others will be the parameters that the hook is called with.

Current working directory

For some reason, it may be useful if you know what is the current working directory of your hook. The os.getcwd() function can help there and it turns out to be the local file system path to your
git repository (~/work/git-hooks-exp in the above case).

Using the __cleanup__ variable attribute in GCC

GCC’s C compiler allows you to define various variable attributes. One of them is the cleanup attribute (which you can also write as__cleanup__) which allows you to define a function to be called when the variable goes out of scope (for example, before returning from a function). This is useful, for example to never forget to close a file or freeing the memory you may have allocated. Next up is a demo example defining this attribute on an integer variable (which obviously has no practical value). I am using gcc (GCC) 4.7.2 20121109 on Fedora 18.

Read the article here.